agriculture

Russian Investment Opportunities: The Drivers and the Hidden Gems

From the world’s best performing index in the first three months of this year, to a laggard this quarter, the Russian index has offered dramatic returns as well as downside risk. What has driven investor sentiment and what are many investors missing?

The World Leader Slips to World Laggard

Russia’s RTS Index was the world’s best performing index in the first three months of this year but has now fallen by around 11% in value so far this quarter (Source: Bloomberg). Moves in this market are often attributed to sentiment over the oil price due to the significant revenues generated by the country exporting this commodity. Therefore speculation over economic growth (read: oil demand) is highly influential. This year has been no different. Turmoil in the Middle East can be attributed as one of the main drivers of a strong rally in oil in the first quarter and concerns over economic growth has caused a reversal since that time. However, is this too simplistic a view and aren’t there other factors to which an investor in Russia should be paying attention?

Source: Bloomberg. Russian RTS Index (white) vs. MSCI World Index (orange) - all $.

Beyond Oil

It is clear to see why investors play so much emphasis on the oil price as a dictator of Russia’s financial health. Supplying some 11.4% of the world’s oil supply last year, Russia is the “biggest single source outside the opec cartel”. Although official figures calculate its contribution to Russia’s GDP at 9%, it is important to be aware that speculation over tax avoidance suggests the value may be nearer to 25%. Nevertheless, what is often overlooked is the specific oil price factored into their budget. For this year, a price above $75/barrel will produce a deficit reduction. With Brent currently standing at $115/barrel, a fall in the Russian Index in reaction to a fall in the oil price to anything above $75/barrel may be missing the point.

Boosting Ties with Iraq

With Russian oil fields maturing and production growth resting heavily on foreign investment, the country is looking externally for new sources. Iraq offers potential opportunities and TNK-BP, Russia’s 3rd largest oil producer and BP Plc’s 50-50 joint venture, isn’t holding back. The relationship between the two countries dates back many years and in 2008 Russia wrote off most of their $12.9bn debt mainly generated pre-gulf war from the Saddam Hussein government purchases of Soviet weapons. Interestingly, last October the Russian President, Dmitry Medvedev announced his country was ready to strengthen co-operation with Iraq, the same month TNK-BP gained the right to bid for 3 natural gas areas in the region.

Mediating the Exit of Qaddafi

Within the political arena, Russia has been just as active. In addition to fighting for a stronger developing market influence at the IMF, Russia has offered its services to facilitate the exit of Qaddafi from rule in Libya. This is the first time it has shown support for the NATO-led military campaign after abstaining from UN Security council vote in March which authorised the intervention and accusing NATO of violating the resolution by backing anti-Qaddafi rebels and causing civilian casualties from air raids. Due to the belief that Qaddafi has “forfeited legitimacy”, they are willing to negotiate his fate with members of his entourage. Evidence of the country’s powerful network, the value of their political clout has been highlighted.

Driving the Agriculture Market

Back to commodities but from a different angle, the Russian weather is an influencer to watch for investing in the agriculture markets. Fine weather has prompted an upward revision of Russian grain production with the Federal Hydrometerological Center reporting the warmer weather has improved the prospect for crops. This has led to speculation that Russia’s ban on grain exports may be lifted on 1 July. Wheat future prices saw double digit losses.

The Chinese Buyer

One particular potential buyer of Russia’s resources is China, state media reported last Monday. China Investment Corp (CIC), the country’s $300bn sovereign wealth fund, was set up in 2007 to invest some of the country’s massive foreign exchange reserves. With the world’s largest foreign capital resource, at $3.0tn, they are keen to find better sources of return and commodities to fuel their rapid economic growth.

G-8 Bullishness Boosting Appetite for Risk

Despite these many factors which may influence Russia’s outlook, financially, economically and politically; its index continues to exhibit a strong correlation to the oil price. This week we’ve seen oil (and Russian equities) respond positively to the declaration by the Group of Eight that the global recovery is strengthening.

Investment Insight

Nevertheless, to differentiate between short-term over-reaction and more logical fundamental moves, being aware of all the issues will equip you with the insight to navigate this volatile but potentially profitable market.

Advertisements

Stagflation – A Risk Worth Noticing

The supreme art of war is to subdue the enemy without fighting – Sun Tzu, The Art of War

Much is made in the news of the risk of inflation. We can’t step far outside our doors without being faced with the challenges it brings. From shockingly high petrol prices to rising agriculture costs hitting our shopping bills, the fear is setting in. However, when we strip out these volatile elements, just how much of a problem is core inflation? Instead, with economic growth precariously fragile, when it does become a concern, won’t we be left fighting a ‘war on two fronts’? It’s time we start to notice the ‘Elephant in The Room’.

An Anaemic Recovery

The economic recovery remains weak. Still driven by the consumer, the environment for spending is tenuous. Retail sales for December were downgraded and January’s figures can only be described as “unspectacular”. We saw the first increase in the claimant count in four months (which would have been even higher had people not given up the job search entirely). Moreover, earnings growth slowed to the lowest rate in six months (from 2.5% to 2.0%). With Hometrack, the property analytics business, foreseeing homebuyers facing a continued struggle to obtain mortgages in 2011, the outlook for spending and GDP growth looks tough.

Source: Capital Economics “UK Labour Market Data” Regular pay growth slowed from 2.5% to 2.0% (Published end Feb 2011, data to end Dec / Jan)

Consumer Companies Highlight the Headwinds

Highlighting the problem were the many consumer companies missing Q410 earnings estimates and downgrading their forecasts for this year. Diageo, Colgate-Palmolive and P&G were among those that struggled to meet expectations. Falls in demand were blamed, with the situation looking none the rosier going forward. Renault predicts the demand for cars in their home market of France will fall by 8%. In addition, rising input costs is adding to woes. Pepsi is budgeting for a whopping 8 – 9.5% increase in the amount of capital they will spend on oil and agriculture commodities, which contributed to the firm lowering their forecast for earnings growth from low double digits to high single digits. The question on everyone’s lips is – can they continue to pass on higher costs to the consumer? With the aforementioned weakness, the most likely answer is “no”.

Source: Bloomberg. Next share price (white) and the Cotton price (orange) + >10% YTD already.

Inflation ‘Illusion’ Tempting Risky Action

So just how much of a problem is inflation, when compared to the weakness of the recovery? True, headline Inflation has held stubbornly above the Bank of England’s target at 3.7%. However, stripping out food and energy prices, core inflation falls to 2.9% and recent reports show that after excluding taxes, we hit the 2% jackpot. Regardless, the political environment poses a risk. The MPC (Monetary Policy Committee) is under immense pressure to defend its credibility after keeping rates on hold for 23 months consecutively. Markets are now pricing in a 25bps rise in May. Crucially, these expectations alone have consequences. In one week alone, more than 10 mortgage lenders pulled their best fixed rate deals – hitting credit availability to the already weakened consumer ‘spenders’.

Only an idiot fights a war on two fronts. ~ Londo Mollari, Babylon 5

Stagflation – A ‘War on Two Fronts’

This is the crux of the problem – promoting growth can at times risk inflation and fighting inflation can risk weakening growth. Currently the biggest challenge of the two is strengthening growth. If the recovery remains weak, then when inflation rises and poses a far more serious challenge, the government will not be able to implement policies to fight it without dragging the economy into another recession. The possibility of stagflation is real. In this situation the government will feel even more pressure to raise rates but unemployment will still be high and so if rates rise, many will suffer. At the moment the MPC have a “wait and see” attitude – let’s hope this continues and they don’t succumb to ‘peer pressure’ too soon.